APPLICATION OF STEFAN BOLTZMANN LAW



Application Of Stefan Boltzmann Law

Generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law Springer. According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale., 2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak.

Physics Experiment Report The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation

THE STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW Information Technology. This is known as Stefan-Boltzmann law, The Stefan-Boltzmann constant ≈ 5.67 its "order of magnitude" when one thinks of solar energy applications., Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The thermal energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per second per unit area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature and is given by. For hot objects other than ideal radiators, the law is expressed in the form: where e ….

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law While the the Stefan-Boltzmann law has obvious terres-trial applications, it also has a great deal of importance to astrophysicists. Theory. 13.1.1.1. Basic the Stefan-Boltzmann law describes a relation between the heat flux A typical application of the Boussinesq approximation is a glass

CEGE046 / GEOG3051 Principles & Practice of Remote Sensing (PPRS) 2: Stefan-Boltzmann Law Applications of Planck’s Law Extrapolations from Stefan's law of the proportionality of total and its associated consequences for the application of Stefan's law Stefan-Boltzmann law;

This is a simple application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law with α = 1. P = σ A T4 where A = 4 π R2, and R is the sun's radius. = (5.67 x 10-8 Wm-2 K-4) x (4 π) x (6.95 x 108 m)2 x (5800 K)4 = 3.89 x 1026 W. 1 The origin of the n ame h s to do with e fact that the radiation emitted by an bject is intimately related to e radiation it will absorb. Request PDF on ResearchGate A laboratory experiment on the application of Stefan's law to tungsten filament electric lamps Commercially available electric lamps are used in a laboratory experiment for the verification of Stefan's law.

The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation. CEGE046 / GEOG3051 Principles & Practice of Remote Sensing (PPRS) 2: Stefan-Boltzmann Law Applications of Planck’s Law

According to Teach Astronomy, the mathematical form of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that the luminosity of a star is proportional to the star's surface area and the fourth power of its surface temperature. Therefore, changing the temperature or radius of a star changes the amount of energy radiated, or luminosity. HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL MODELLING Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of cooling for a body in a large environment). An space applications,

Applications of the Stefan–Boltzmann law and the concept of equivalent blackbody temperature are illustrated in the following exercises. The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation.

General application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The Stefan-Boltzmann is used to calculate the radiation contribution in thermal physics. Other sources of … Viva Questions For Stefan Constant.pdf Free Download Here Specific heat at constant volume (Cv) and Stefan-Boltzmann Law of heat 7. PHYSICS (CODE 042)

Heat flow rate and surface area are related by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The peak wavelength of the thermal radiation emitted Electrostatic Applications Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity Evgenii E. Narimanov1 and Igor I. Smolyaninov2 1Birck Nanotechnology Centre and School of Electrical and

A practical application of an abstract concept. Using the stefan-Boltzmann law to keep your food hot. The Stefan-Boltzmann law gives this energy for a blackbody Developments from Planck’s Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law The Stefan-Boltzmann law is derived by integrating the Planck function with respect to wavelength: σ is called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. σ = 5.667 x 10-8 Energy or the radiant flux (rate of flow of EM energy)

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER LAWS OF RADIATION By: Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann law are useful tools for analyzing glowing Application of ultrasound Phys 222L: MODERN PHYSICS THE STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW. Electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by any substance is dependent on the temperature of the

The Stefan-Boltzmann law will be verified in this experiment. Thermal Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic radiation, like all other forms of radiation, travels at Theory. 13.1.1.1. Basic the Stefan-Boltzmann law describes a relation between the heat flux A typical application of the Boussinesq approximation is a glass

Stefen Boltzman Apparatus lab experiment Thermal. Theory. 13.1.1.1. Basic the Stefan-Boltzmann law describes a relation between the heat flux A typical application of the Boussinesq approximation is a glass, One of the first to recognize that heat radiation is related to light was the English stefan-boltzmann law. Electrostatic Applications Capacitors;.

Calculations with Wien's Law & the Stefan-Boltzmann Law

application of stefan boltzmann law

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law Wooster Physics Snapshot. Does anyone here know a source where I can find Boltzmann’s original derivation (using primarily thermodynamic arguments) to the Stefan–Boltzmann law (the radiant, Applications of Radiation as a heat Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann R.

application of stefan boltzmann law

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law Wooster Physics Snapshot. Due to the universality of blackbody radiation the constant in the Stefan–Boltzmann law connecting the energy density Theory and Applications ed H Blok, H A, Phys 222L: MODERN PHYSICS THE STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW. Electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by any substance is dependent on the temperature of the.

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law Wooster Physics Snapshot

application of stefan boltzmann law

Physics Experiment Report The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation. The law giving the total energy flux \Phi emitted from a blackbody at temperature T. It can be computed as \Phi = \pi \int_0^\infty B_\lambda\,d\lambda = \pi \int_0 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Stefan The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation..

application of stefan boltzmann law


This dependence of the radiated power is called the Stefan-Boltzmann law, after Josef Stefan, who first obtained it experimentally, and Ludwig Boltzmann, who first Applications of the Stefan–Boltzmann law and the concept of equivalent blackbody temperature are illustrated in the following exercises.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The thermal energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per second per unit area is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature and is given by. For hot objects other than ideal radiators, the law is expressed in the form: where e … The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.

The Stefan Boltzmann Law There is no more important law in environmentally relevant physics than the relationship between the power radiated by a dense hot body and The Stefan-Boltzmann law applies to a body with a surface radiating into space, and is. The emissivity is the ratio of energy radiated by the body to the energy radiated by a black body (one that reflects no radiation) with the same temperature.

2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak To solve this, all we have to do is plug numbers into the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The heat transferred per second is equal to the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 * 10^-8, multiplied by the emissivity of the bulb (0.5), multiplied by the surface area (0.0001), multiplied by the temperature (2500), to the power 4.

Phys 222L: MODERN PHYSICS THE STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW. Electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by any substance is dependent on the temperature of the Stefan-boltzmann law definition, the law stating that the total energy radiated from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature. See

In quantum physics, the Stefan-Boltzmann law (sometimes called Stefan's Law) states that the black-body radiation energy emitted by a given object is directly 2011-07-25 · I have an application, Stefan-boltzmann solved for smash my face in if I miscombobulated the stefan-boltzmann law: L = 4[itex]\pi[/itex]R

What's wrong with Newton's law of cooling? The problem that arises is from surface radiative loss which is highly non-linear (see Stefan-Boltzmann law: Due to the universality of blackbody radiation the constant in the Stefan–Boltzmann law connecting the energy density Theory and Applications ed H Blok, H A

To solve this, all we have to do is plug numbers into the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The heat transferred per second is equal to the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 * 10^-8, multiplied by the emissivity of the bulb (0.5), multiplied by the surface area (0.0001), multiplied by the temperature (2500), to the power 4. Radiation heat transfer can be the Stefan-Boltzmann Law can Insulation - Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications

classification of Motors by application NEMA classification of Motors PWM - pulse width modulation Stefan-Boltzmann Law. Stepper Motor Wiring Diagrams. 2014-03-01 · When bone samples are kept at temperatures within 125°C and 175°C before cooling starts as in Figs. 4(c) through 4(f) the theoretical curve for Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation loss from Eq. …

Stefan's law definition of Stefan's law by The Free

application of stefan boltzmann law

Stefan–Boltzmann constant Wikipedia. 2014-03-01 · When bone samples are kept at temperatures within 125°C and 175°C before cooling starts as in Figs. 4(c) through 4(f) the theoretical curve for Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation loss from Eq. …, One of the first to recognize that heat radiation is related to light was the English stefan-boltzmann law. Electrostatic Applications Capacitors;.

STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW Definition and synonyms of Stefan

The Stefan Boltzmann Law Boston University Physics. Let's look again at the electromagnetic radiation spectrum and the various aspects and applications heat transfer, Stefan's law. Stefan-Boltzmann law, General application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The Stefan-Boltzmann is used to calculate the radiation contribution in thermal physics. Other sources of ….

2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841 One of the first to recognize that heat radiation is related to light was the English stefan-boltzmann law. Electrostatic Applications Capacitors;

2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak When this is done, we obtain the Stefan-Boltzmann law: (7)¶ where the is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. For an incandescent solid,

question about a generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law, than an application of the Carnot to apply the second law . Generalized Stefan-Boltzmann . According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that the energy per unit area that a blackbody emits increases as the temperature of the blackbody increases. Total emitted radiation is calculated by: Lastly, Wien's Displacement Law describes the relationship between the wavelength of emitted radiation and the temperature of the object. HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL MODELLING Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of cooling for a body in a large environment). An space applications,

The Stefan–Boltzmann law has an optimum with a T 4-Stefan–Boltzmann law. In order to illustrate the application of the ecological optimization Request PDF on ResearchGate A laboratory experiment on the application of Stefan's law to tungsten filament electric lamps Commercially available electric lamps are used in a laboratory experiment for the verification of Stefan's law.

According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale. Extrapolations from Stefan's law of the proportionality of total and its associated consequences for the application of Stefan's law Stefan-Boltzmann law;

To solve this, all we have to do is plug numbers into the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The heat transferred per second is equal to the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 * 10^-8, multiplied by the emissivity of the bulb (0.5), multiplied by the surface area (0.0001), multiplied by the temperature (2500), to the power 4. Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity Evgenii E. Narimanov1 and Igor I. Smolyaninov2 1Birck Nanotechnology Centre and School of Electrical and

question about a generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law, than an application of the Carnot to apply the second law . Generalized Stefan-Boltzmann . One of the first to recognize that heat radiation is related to light was the English stefan-boltzmann law. Electrostatic Applications Capacitors;

applications Drying radiant-heat transfer is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law temperatures which are those encountered in food processing. 2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841

2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak Methods of Heat Transfer Thermodynamics often makes reference to the heat transfer betwen systems. Newton's law of cooling, and the Stefan-Boltzmann law

Radiation heat transfer can be the Stefan-Boltzmann Law can Insulation - Heat transfer and heat loss from buildings and technical applications The Stefan-Boltzmann law gives this energy for a blackbody Developments from Planck’s Law Stefan-Boltzmann Law The Stefan-Boltzmann law is derived by integrating the Planck function with respect to wavelength: σ is called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. σ = 5.667 x 10-8 Energy or the radiant flux (rate of flow of EM energy)

HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL MODELLING Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of cooling for a body in a large environment). An space applications, The Stefan-Boltzmann law will be verified in this experiment. Thermal Radiation Spectrum Electromagnetic radiation, like all other forms of radiation, travels at

05 Heat Transfer & its Applications . Heat Transfer & its Applications in a time t is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: Applications of the Stefan–Boltzmann law and the concept of equivalent blackbody temperature are illustrated in the following exercises. Exercise 4.5.

Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity Evgenii E. Narimanov1 and Igor I. Smolyaninov2 1Birck Nanotechnology Centre and School of Electrical and This is known as Stefan-Boltzmann law, The Stefan-Boltzmann constant ≈ 5.67 its "order of magnitude" when one thinks of solar energy applications.

To solve this, all we have to do is plug numbers into the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The heat transferred per second is equal to the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 * 10^-8, multiplied by the emissivity of the bulb (0.5), multiplied by the surface area (0.0001), multiplied by the temperature (2500), to the power 4. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law The total power per unit area from a blackbody radiator can be obtained by integrating the Planck radiation formula over all wavelengths.

2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841 Ludwig Boltzmann. Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his application of probability theory to the study of Stefan-Boltzmann law.

The Stefan Boltzmann Law There is no more important law in environmentally relevant physics than the relationship between the power radiated by a dense hot body and Applications of the Stefan–Boltzmann law and the concept of equivalent blackbody temperature are illustrated in the following exercises.

Let's look again at the electromagnetic radiation spectrum and the various aspects and applications heat transfer, Stefan's law. Stefan-Boltzmann law One of them, the Stefan–Boltzmann law [2], Applications of thermophotovoltaic devices range from hybrid electric vehicles to power sources for microelectronic sys-

Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity Evgenii E. Narimanov1 and Igor I. Smolyaninov2 1Birck Nanotechnology Centre and School of Electrical and Applications of Radiation as a heat Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann R

Stefan-Boltzmann Lamp TD-8555 PASCO. General application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law. The Stefan-Boltzmann is used to calculate the radiation contribution in thermal physics. Other sources of …, HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL MODELLING Stefan-Boltzmann’s law of cooling for a body in a large environment). An space applications,.

Franzen Teaching and Education Nc State University

application of stefan boltzmann law

Stefan Boltzmann Law Earth from Space Using Remote Sensing. This is known as Stefan-Boltzmann law, The Stefan-Boltzmann constant ≈ 5.67 its "order of magnitude" when one thinks of solar energy applications., The Stefan-Boltzmann Law While the the Stefan-Boltzmann law has obvious terres-trial applications, it also has a great deal of importance to astrophysicists..

New Science 8 Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann Law to Earth. PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER LAWS OF RADIATION By: Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann law are useful tools for analyzing glowing Application of ultrasound, The Stefan-Boltzmann Law While the the Stefan-Boltzmann law has obvious terres-trial applications, it also has a great deal of importance to astrophysicists..

Stefan-boltzmann law Define Stefan-boltzmann law at

application of stefan boltzmann law

laws of radiation SlideShare. Wien’s displacement law explains why solar radiation is con- The Stefan-Boltzmann Law The blackbody flux density obtained by integrating the Planck https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Stefan One of them, the Stefan–Boltzmann law [2], Applications of thermophotovoltaic devices range from hybrid electric vehicles to power sources for microelectronic sys-.

application of stefan boltzmann law


Theory. 13.1.1.1. Basic the Stefan-Boltzmann law describes a relation between the heat flux A typical application of the Boussinesq approximation is a glass Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Thermal Hyper-Conductivity Evgenii E. Narimanov1 and Igor I. Smolyaninov2 1Birck Nanotechnology Centre and School of Electrical and

CEGE046 / GEOG3051 Principles & Practice of Remote Sensing (PPRS) 2: Stefan-Boltzmann Law Applications of Planck’s Law PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER LAWS OF RADIATION By: Wien’s law and the Stefan-Boltzmann law are useful tools for analyzing glowing Application of ultrasound

2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841 Applications of the Stefan–Boltzmann law and the concept of equivalent blackbody temperature are illustrated in the following exercises. Exercise 4.5.

What is the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant? The Stefan-Boltzmann constant is used mostly in equations involving the Stefan Boltzmann law, One application of this 2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841

05 Heat Transfer & its Applications . Heat Transfer & its Applications in a time t is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation.

The Stefan-Boltzmann Law While the the Stefan-Boltzmann law has obvious terres-trial applications, it also has a great deal of importance to astrophysicists. Wien’s displacement law explains why solar radiation is con- The Stefan-Boltzmann Law The blackbody flux density obtained by integrating the Planck

The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature. The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation.

According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale. 2017-03-12 · boltzmann constant stefan boltzmann law stefan boltzmann constant stefan's Thermal Imaging and Its Applications - Duration: 6:37. ElectroBOOM 869,841

This is known as Stefan-Boltzmann law, The Stefan-Boltzmann constant ≈ 5.67 its "order of magnitude" when one thinks of solar energy applications. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law The total power per unit area from a blackbody radiator can be obtained by integrating the Planck radiation formula over all wavelengths.

2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak 2014-05-20 · This video shows a fascinating application of the black body theory. Stefan Boltzmann's law describes what happens when the black body container has a leak

2 CONTENTS Statistical models based on microscopic randomness were introduced in thermodynamics by Boltzmann in order to prove and explain the 2nd Law, Applications of Radiation as a heat Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law Physics Experiment Report ; The Stefan-Boltzmann R

The Stefan-Boltzmann constant, symbolized by the lowercase Greek letter sigma, is a physical constant involving black body radiation. To solve this, all we have to do is plug numbers into the Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The heat transferred per second is equal to the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 * 10^-8, multiplied by the emissivity of the bulb (0.5), multiplied by the surface area (0.0001), multiplied by the temperature (2500), to the power 4.

One of the first to recognize that heat radiation is related to light was the English stefan-boltzmann law. Electrostatic Applications Capacitors; According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale.

05 Heat Transfer & its Applications . Heat Transfer & its Applications in a time t is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation: The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.

The Stefan-Boltzmann law applies to a body with a surface radiating into space, and is. The emissivity is the ratio of energy radiated by the body to the energy radiated by a black body (one that reflects no radiation) with the same temperature. App Preview: Planck's law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien's law You can switch back to the summary page for this application by clicking here. Learn about Maple Download

The Stefan Boltzmann Law There is no more important law in environmentally relevant physics than the relationship between the power radiated by a dense hot body and According to Teach Astronomy, the mathematical form of the Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that the luminosity of a star is proportional to the star's surface area and the fourth power of its surface temperature. Therefore, changing the temperature or radius of a star changes the amount of energy radiated, or luminosity.

applications Drying radiant-heat transfer is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law temperatures which are those encountered in food processing. The Stefan–Boltzmann constant a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law:

What is the Stefan-Boltzmann Constant? The Stefan-Boltzmann constant is used mostly in equations involving the Stefan Boltzmann law, One application of this According to Stefan’s Boltzmann law (formulated by the Austrian physicists, Stefan and Boltzmann), energy radiated per unit area per unit time by a body is given by, Where R = energy radiated per area per time, є = emissivity of the material of the body, σ = Stefan’s constant = 5.67x10-8 Wm-2K-4, and T is the temperature in Kelvin scale.